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The role of cities as engines of sustainable development is indisputable. Cities account for nearly half of the global population and about two-thirds of global energy demand. These figures are expected to grow as the rate of urbanization is rapidly increasing—particularly in developing countries where urban populations are expected to exceed rural populations by 2020. Cities also play a major role in supporting national economic development—though rapid urbanization is placing significant constraints on their energy infrastructure, which in turn can constrain growth. Therefore, energy efficiency plays a central role in supporting the development of “sustainable cities,” and complements urban development agendas designed to realize a range of social, environmental, and economic co-benefits.